Nile level fluctuations throughout one calendar year in 1846
The fact that the Palermo Stone annual measurements are unlikely to be Nile height measurements, as all Egyptologists have supposed until now, is shown by this graph of the Nile level fluctuations throughout one calendar year in 1846. These are monthly readings taken from the Nilometer of Rhoda at Cairo. The levels are not measured precisely enough to match the measurements recorded on the Palermo Stone, despite being from a modern ‘scientific era’, and the variations are never small enough to be described by amounts as tiny as 0.7366 of an inch, as we find on the Palermo Stone. I am convinced that the Palermo Stone records astronomical measurements of some kind. Since sines of angles were expressed by lengths of chords of an imaginary circle at a distance from the observer by Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria (circa 90 -168 AD), it may be that the much earlier ancient Egyptians also measured celestial angles by ‘chord lengths’ on the celestial meridian at culmination. If that were so, tiny variations of three quarters of an inch could be explained, whereas annual water level variations of the Nile could never have been detected with such exactitude, and would not even be recorded to such fine detail today assuming the Aswan Dam did not exist. (Reproduced from Sir Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, London, 1894, p. 228.)
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Hölscher, Uvo, Das Grabdenkmal des Königs Chephren (The Funerary Monument of King Chephren), Erster Band (Vol. I) of the Veröffentlichungen der Ernst von Sieglin-Expedition (Publications of the Ernst von Sieglin Expedition in Egypt), edited by Georg Steindorff, containing also contributions by Ludwig Borchardt and Georg Steindorff, J. C. Hinrich’s Booksellers, Leipzig, 1912.